Dr. Maria Montessori
Maria Montessori was, in many ways, ahead of her time. Born in the town of Chiaravalle, in the province of Ancona, Italy, in 1870, she became the first female physician in Italy upon her graduation from medical school in 1896. Shortly afterwards, she was chosen to represent Italy at two different women's conferences, in Berlin in 1896 and in London in 1900.
In her medical practice, her clinical observations led her to analyze how children learn, and she concluded that they build themselves from what they find in their environment. Shifting her focus from the body to the mind, she returned to the university in 1901, this time to study psychology and philosophy. In 1904, she was made a professor of anthropology at the University of Rome.
Her desire to help children was so strong, however, that in 1906 she gave up both her university chair and her medical practice to work with a group of sixty young children of working parents in the San Lorenzo district of Rome. It was there that she founded the first Casa dei Bambini, or "Children's House." What ultimately became the Montessori method of education developed there, based upon Montessori's scientific observations of these children's almost effortless ability to absorb knowledge from their surroundings, as well as their tireless interest in manipulating materials. Every piece of equipment, every exercise, every method Montessori developed was based on what she observed children to do "naturally," by themselves, unassisted by adults.
Maria Montessori was also a great advocate for world peace- in fact she was twice nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. She envisioned a peaceful and dynamic world where all growth- be it physical, emotional, social, mental or spiritual- could proceed if children were provided with the opportunity to flourish as self-directed, caring and independent citizens.
Recommended Montessori Literature
Montessori: The Science Behind the Genius by Angeline Stoll Lillard, The Discovery of Childhood by Dr. Maria Montessori, The Secret of Childhood by Dr. Maria Montessori